Condom Promotion and Counseling Study

Study Summary

What was HIVNET 016a?

A study to evaluate the effectiveness of condom promotion and counseling messages on uptake of condoms as a means to prevent HIV transmission in women attending postnatal and family planning clinics in Malawi and Zimbabwe.

Who participated in the study?

3,000 women, regardless of HIV serostatus, attending postnatal and family planning clinics in Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi, and Harare, Zimbabwe.

What happened during the study?

Behavioral counseling messages for five visits over two months; subsequent quarterly visits with HIV pre-test, risk reduction, and post-test counseling.


A total of 2016 HIV-negative women from Malawi and Zimbabwe were enrolled in the condom promotion and counseling phase of the study. Of these, 1679 were tested for HIV during follow-up and 113 seroconverted, resulting in overall HIV incidence rate of 4.7 per 100 women-years (95% CI 3.8-5.6). Incidence rates were similar across sites. The major predictors of HIV acquisition were young age, presence of STIs, being unmarried, and higher educational level.

Study Documents