HPTN Bibliographic Record

Kapiga S, Kelly C, Weiss S, Daley T, Peterson L, Leburg C, Ramjee G. Risk factors for incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zambia: results from HPTN 055 study. Sex Transm Dis. 2009, 36: 199-206 PMID:19265734.
OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women in Durban and Hlabisa (South Africa), Moshi (Tanzania), and Lusaka (Zambia). STUDY DESIGN: Between 2003 and 2004, 958 women at risk of STIs were enrolled in a 1-year prospective study. They were interviewed at each monthly visit, and samples for STI testing were collected during quarterly and other visits when clinically indicated. RESULTS: The incidence of infections as measured in person-years at risk (PYAR) was as follows: overall trichomoniasis, 31.9/100 PYAR; chlamydial infection in South Africa, 19.5/100 PYAR; chlamydial infection in Tanzania and Zambia, 4.9/100 PYAR; gonorrhea in South Africa, 16.5/100 PYAR; gonorrhea in Tanzania and Zambia, 5.3/100 PYAR; overall syphilis, 7.5/100 PYAR; and overall HIV, 3.8/100 PYAR. The incidence of most STIs was highest among the South African sites, where chlamydial infection and gonorrhea were detected by using a more sensitive assay. Independent risk factors included age, hormonal contraceptive methods, and measures of sexual behavior, including number of sex partners and occurrence of anal sex in the past 3 months. Women with incident HIV infection were at increased risk of chlamydial infection [odds ratio (OR) = 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-15.2]and gonorrhea (OR = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.9-17.0) in South African sites. Despite ongoing counseling during the study, high-risk sexual behaviors were common, and consistent condom use remained low. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of STIs, including HIV, was high among women in this study. These findings highlight the urgent need for effective HIV/STI prevention programs in this population.