HPTN Bibliographic Record
Hudelson SE, McConnell MS, Bagenda D, Piwowar-Manning E, Parsons TL, Nolan ML, Bakaki PM, Thigpen MC, Mubiru M, Fowler MG, Eshleman SH. Emergence and persistence of nevirapine resistance in breast milk after single-dose nevirapine administration. AIDS. 2010, 24: 557-61. PMC3065236
OBJECTIVE: Single-dose nevirapine (NVP) (sdNVP) can reduce the risk of HIV vertical transmission. We assessed risk factors for NVP resistance in plasma and breast milk from sdNVP-exposed Ugandan women. METHODS: Samples were analyzed using the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 Monitor Test Kit, version 1.5, and the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System. NVP concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: HIV genotypes (plasma and breast milk) were obtained for 30 women 4 weeks after sdNVP (HIV subtypes: 15A, 1C, 12D, two recombinant). NVP resistance was detected in 12 (40%) of 30 breast milk samples. There was a nonsignificant trend between detection of NVP resistance in breast milk and plasma (P = 0.06). There was no association of HIV resistance in breast milk with median maternal pre-NVP viral load or CD4 cell count, median breast milk viral load at 4 weeks, breast milk sodium more than 10 mmol/l, HIV subtype, or concentration of NVP in breast milk or plasma. CONCLUSION: NVP resistance was frequently detected in breast milk 4 weeks after sdNVP exposure. In this study, we were unable to identify specific factors associated with breast milk NVP resistance.