HPTN Bibliographic Record

Reynolds SJ, Laeyendecker O, Nakigozi G, Gallant JE, Huang W, Hudelson SE, Quinn TC, Newell K, Serwadda D, Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Eshleman SH. Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among HIV-infected adults failing antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012, 28: 1739-44. PMC3505045
We analyzed antiretroviral drug susceptibility in HIV-infected adults failing first- and second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Rakai, Uganda. Samples obtained from participants at baseline (pretreatment) and at the time of failure on first-line ART and second-line ART were analyzed using genotypic and phenotypic assays for antiretroviral drug resistance. Test results were obtained from 73 samples from 38 individuals (31 baseline samples, 36 first-line failure samples, and six second-line failure samples). Four (13%) of the 31 baseline samples had mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively). Among the 36 first-line failure samples, 31 (86%) had NNRTI resistance mutations and 29 (81%) had lamivudine resistance mutations; only eight (22%) had other NRTI resistance mutations. None of the six individuals failing a second-line protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen had PI resistance mutations. Six (16%) of the participants had discordant genotypic and phenotypic test results. Genotypic resistance to drugs included in first-line ART regimens was detected prior to treatment and among participants failing first-line ART. PI resistance was not detected in individuals failing second-line ART. Surveillance for transmitted and acquired drug resistance remains a priority for scale-up of ART