Sabapathy K, Stöckl H, Mulubwa C, Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa C, Hoddinott G, Floyd S, Seeley J, Bond V, Bock P, Fidler S, Ayles H, Hayes R, HPTN 071 (PopART) Study Team. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Associated Factors in HPTN 071 (PopART) Study Communities in Zambia and South Africa-A Comparison by HIV Status. AIDS Behav. 2022, 26: 1355-1365. PMC9001629
The HPTN 071(PopART) study was a community-randomised trial in Zambia and South Africa, examining the impact of combination-prevention including universal testing and treatment (UTT), on HIV-incidence. This sub-study evaluated factors associated with IPV (physical and/or sexual) to identify differences by HIV status. During 2015-16, a random subset of adults who participated in the first year of the PopART intervention were recruited and standardised questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios of factors associated with IPV. Among > 700 women studied (300 HIV-negative;400 HIV-positive), ~ 20% reported experiencing physical and/or sexual violence in the last 12-months. Sexual violence was similar by HIV status, but physical violence and reporting both physical/sexual violence was more common among HIV-positive women. Spending nights away from the community in the last 12-months was associated with higher odds of IPV among both HIV-negative (aOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.02-9.81) and HIV-positive women (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 0.99-3.24). Among HIV-positive women, financial autonomy was associated with reduced IPV (aOR:0.41,95%CI:0.23-0.75) while pregnancy in the last 12-months (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.07-4.74), risk of alcohol dependence (aOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.51-5.00) and risk of mental distress (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.33-5.16) were associated with increased IPV. Among HIV-negative women reporting sex in the last 12-months, transactional sex (aOR 3.97, 95% CI 1.02-15.37) and not knowing partner's HIV status (aOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.24-7.29) were associated with IPV. IPV was commonly reported in the study population and factors associated with IPV differed by HIV status. The association of mobility with IPV warrants further research. The high prevalence of harmful alcohol use and mental distress, and their association with IPV among HIV-positive women require urgent attention.