Takuva S, Karuna ST, Juraska M, Rudnicki E, Edupuganti S, Anderson M, De La Grecca R, Gaudinski MR, Sehurutshi A, Orrell C, Naidoo L, Valencia J, Villela LM, Walsh SR, Andrew P, Karg C, Randhawa A, Hural J, Gomez Lorenzo MM, Burns DN, Ledgerwood J, Mascola JR, Cohen M, Corey L, Mngadi K, Mgodi NM, HVTN 703/HPTN 081 and HVTN 704/HPTN 085 Study Teams.. Infusion Reactions After Receiving the Broadly Neutralizing Antibody VRC01 or Placebo to Reduce HIV-1 Acquisition: Results From the Phase 2b Antibody-Mediated Prevention Randomized Trials.. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2022, 89: 405-413. PMC9555144
Background: The antibody-mediated prevention (AMP) studies (HVTN 703/HPTN 081 and HVTN 704/HPTN 085) are harmonized phase 2b trials to assess HIV prevention efficacy and safety of intravenous infusion of anti-gp120 broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01. Antibodies for other indications can elicit infusion-related reactions (IRRs), often requiring premedication and limiting their application. We report on AMP study IRRs. Methods: From 2016 to 2018, 2699 HIV-uninfected, at-risk men and transgender adults in the Americas and Switzerland (704/085) and 1924 at-risk heterosexual women in sub-Saharan Africa (703/081) were randomized 1:1:1 to VRC01 10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, or placebo. Participants received infusions every 8 weeks (n = 10/participant) over 72 weeks, with 104 weeks of follow-up. Safety assessments were conducted before and after infusion and at noninfusion visits. A total of 40,674 infusions were administered. Results: Forty-seven participants (1.7%) experienced 49 IRRs in 704/085; 93 (4.8%) experienced 111 IRRs in 703/081 (P < 0.001). IRRs occurred more frequently in VRC01 than placebo recipients in 703/081 (P < 0.001). IRRs were associated with atopic history (P = 0.046) and with younger age (P = 0.023) in 703/081. Four clinical phenotypes of IRRs were observed: urticaria, dyspnea, dyspnea with rash, and "other." Urticaria was most prevalent, occurring in 25 (0.9%) participants in 704/085 and 41 (2.1%) participants in 703/081. Most IRRs occurred with the initial infusion and incidence diminished through the last infusion. All reactions were managed successfully without sequelae. Conclusions: IRRs in the AMP studies were uncommon, typically mild or moderate, successfully managed at the research clinic, and resolved without sequelae. Analysis is ongoing to explore potential IRR mechanisms.