Delany-Moretlwe S, Mgodi N, Bekker L, et al. High prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in young women eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in South Africa and Zimbabwe: results from the HPTN 082 trial. Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Introduction We investigated the prevalence, incidence and factors associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young African women seeking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods HPTN 082 was a prospective, open-label PrEP study enrolling HIV-negative sexually active women aged 16–25 years in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe. Endocervical swabs from enrolment, months 6 and 12 were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by nucleic acid amplification, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) by a rapid test. Intracellular tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in dried blood spots were measured at months 6 and 12. Associations between risk characteristics and STI outcomes were assessed using Poisson regression. Results Of 451 enrolled participants, 55% had an STI detected at least once. CT incidence was 27.8 per 100 person-years (py) (95% CI 23.1, 33.2), GC incidence was 11.4 per 100 py (95% CI 8.5, 15.0) and TV incidence was 6.7 per 100 py (95% CI 4.5, 9.5). 66% of incident infections were diagnosed in women uninfected at baseline. Baseline cervical infection (GC or CT) risk was highest in Cape Town (relative risk (RR) 2.38, 95% CI 1.35, 4.19) and in those not living with family (RR 1.87, 95% 1.13, 3.08); condom use was protective (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45, 0.99). Incident CT was associated with baseline CT (RR 2.01; 95% CI 1.28, 3.15) and increasing depression score (RR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09). Incident GC was higher in Cape Town (RR 2.40; 95% CI 1.18, 4.90) and in participants with high PrEP adherence (TFV-DP concentrations ≥700 fmol/punch) (RR 2.04 95% CI 1.02, 4.08). Conclusion Adolescent girls and young women seeking PrEP have a high prevalence and incidence of curable STIs. Alternatives to syndromic management for diagnosis and treatment are needed to reduce the burden of STIs in this population.