HPTN Bibliographic Record
Piwowar-Manning E, Fiamma A, Laeyendecker O, Kulich M, Donnell D, Szekeres G, Robins-Morris L, Mullis CE, Vallari A, Hackett J Jr, Mastro TD, Gray G, Richter L, Alexandre MW, Chariyalertsak S, Chingono A, Sweat M, Coates T, Eshleman SH. HIV surveillance in a large, community-based study: results from the pilot study of Project Accept (HIV Prevention Trials Network 043). BMC Infect Dis. 2011, 11: 251 PMCID: 3198953.
BACKGROUND: Project Accept is a community randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of community mobilization, mobile testing, same-day results, and post-test support for the prevention of HIV infection in Thailand, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. We evaluated the accuracy of in-country HIV rapid testing and determined HIV prevalence in the Project Accept pilot study. METHODS: Two HIV rapid tests were performed in parallel in local laboratories. If the first two rapid tests were discordant (one reactive, one non-reactive), a third HIV rapid test or enzyme immunoassay was performed. Samples were designated HIV NEG if the first two tests were non-reactive, HIV DISC if the first two tests were discordant, and HIV POS if the first two tests were reactive. Samples were re-analyzed in the United States using a panel of laboratory tests. RESULTS: HIV infection status was correctly determined based on-in country testing for 2,236 (99.5%) of 2,247 participants [7 (0.37%) of 1,907 HIV NEG samples were HIV-positive; 2 (0.63%) of 317 HIV POS samples were HIV-negative; 2 (8.3%) of 24 HIV DISC samples were incorrectly identified as HIV-positive based on the in-country tie-breaker test]. HIV prevalence was: Thailand: 0.6%, Tanzania: 5.0%, Zimbabwe 14.7%, Soweto South Africa: 19.4%, Vulindlela, South Africa: 24.4%, (overall prevalence: 14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: In-country testing based on two HIV rapid tests correctly identified the HIV infection status for 99.5% of study participants; most participants with discordant HIV rapid tests were not infected. HIV prevalence varied considerably across the study sites (range: 0.6% to 24.4%). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT00203749.