Chen I, Connor MB, Clarke W, Marzinke MA, Cummings V, Breaud A, Fogel JM, Laeyendecker O, Fields SD, Donnell D, Griffith S, Scott HM, Shoptaw S, Rio CD, Magnus M, Mannheimer S, Wheeler DP, Mayer KH, Koblin BA, Eshleman SH. Antiretroviral drug use and HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected Black men who have sex with men: HIV Prevention Trials Network 061. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 PMC4482803
BACKGROUND: HPTN 061 enrolled Black men who have sex with men in the United States. Some men with low/undetectable HIV RNA had unusual patterns of antiretroviral (ARV) drug use or had drugs detected in the absence of viral suppression. This report includes a comprehensive analysis of ARV drug use and drug resistance among men in HPTN 061 who were not virally suppressed. METHODS: The analysis included 169 men who had viral loads >400 copies/mL at enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection. By self-report, 88 were previously diagnosed, including 31 in care; 137 men reported no ARV drug use. Samples from these 169 men and 23 seroconverters were analyzed with HIV genotyping and ARV drug assays. RESULTS: Forty-eight (28%) of the 169 men had ≥1 drug resistance mutation (DRM); 19 (11%) had multi-class resistance. Sixty men (36%) had ≥1 ARV drug detected, 42 (70%) of whom reported no ARV drug use. Nine (23%) of 39 newly-infected men had ≥1 DRM; 10 had ≥1 ARV drug detected. Unusual patterns of ARV drugs were detected more frequently in newly-diagnosed men than previously-diagnosed men. The rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was 23% based on HIV genotyping and self-reported ARV drug use, but was 12% after adjusting for ARV drug detection. CONCLUSIONS: Many men in HPTN 061 had drug-resistant HIV and many were at risk of acquiring additional DRMs. ARV drug testing revealed unusual patterns of ARV drug use and provided a more accurate estimate of TDR.