Mitchell KM, Dimitrov D, Hughes JP, Xia F, Donnell D, Amico KR, Bokoch K, Chitwarakorn A, Bekker LG, Holtz TH, Mannheimer S, Grant RM, Boily MC. In what circumstances could non-daily pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV substantially reduce program costs?. AIDS. 2018, 32: 809-818. PMC5854532
OBJECTIVES: To review the main factors influencing the costs of nondaily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (+/-emtricitabine). To estimate the cost reductions possible with nondaily PrEP compared with daily PrEP for different populations (MSM and heterosexual populations). DESIGN: Systematic review and data triangulation. METHODS: We estimated the required number of tablets/person/week for dosing regimens used in the HPTN 067/ADAPT (daily/time-driven/event-driven) and IPERGAY (on-demand) trials for different patterns of sexual intercourse. Using trial data, and behavioural and cost data obtained through systematic literature reviews, we estimated cost savings resulting from tablet reductions for nondaily versus daily oral PrEP, assuming 100% adherence. RESULTS: Among different populations being prioritized for PrEP, the median reported number of days of sexual activity varied between 0 and 2 days/week (0-1.5 days/week for MSM, 1-2 days/week for heterosexual populations). With 100% adherence and two or fewer sex-days/week, HPTN 067/ADAPT nondaily regimens reduced the number of tablets/week by more than 40% compared with daily PrEP. PrEP program costs were reduced the most in settings with high drug costs, for example, by 66-69% with event-driven PrEP for French/US populations reporting on average one sex-day/week. CONCLUSION: Nondaily oral PrEP could lower costs substantially (>50%) compared with daily PrEP, particularly in high-income countries. Adherence and efficacy data are needed to determine cost-effectiveness.