Velloza J, Bacchetti P, Hendrix CW, Murnane P, Hughes JP, Li M, Curlin M, Holtz TH, Mannheimer S, Marzinke MA, Amico KR, Liu A, Piwowar-Manning E, Eshleman SH, Dye BJ, Gandhi M, Grant RM, HPTN 067/ADAPT Study Team. Short and long-term pharmacologic measures of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use among high-risk men who have sex with men in HPTN 067/ADAPT. JAIDS.
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on adherence. Pharmacologic measures help interpret patterns and predictors of PrEP adherence. SETTING: We analyzed data from the sub-sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in HPTN 067/ADAPT in Bangkok, Thailand, and Harlem, NY, U.S. METHODS: After a five-week directly observed therapy period, participants were randomized to daily, time-driven, or event-driven PrEP. Follow-up occurred at weeks 4, 12, and 24 post-randomization. Plasma and hair FTC/TFV levels indicated short and long-term PrEP use, respectively. Electronic pill bottle data (Wisepill) were collected weekly. Pearson correlation coefficients between PrEP use measures were calculated; linear mixed models assessed predictors of plasma and hair drug concentrations. RESULTS: Among 350 participants (median age 31 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 25-38), 49.7% were from Harlem, half had less than college education, and 21% reported heavy alcohol use. In multivariable models, being enrolled in Harlem, being in non-daily arms, and having less than college education were associated with lower hair FTC/TFV concentrations; heavy alcohol use was associated with higher concentrations. Similar results were found for plasma concentrations by site and arm, but older age and greater number of sex partners were associated with higher concentrations. Hair and plasma FTC/TFV concentrations were moderately correlated with Wisepill data (r>/=0.29) across visits. CONCLUSION: In HPTN067, plasma, hair, and Wisepill data correlated with one another and served as complementary adherence measures. Site, arm, education, age, alcohol, and sexual behavior influenced patterns of adherence.